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Cremator, When to Consider a Repair
1. Cremation Chamber Ceilings
There are a variety of types of Cremation Chamber Ceilings, in accordance to the
brand name and model of your Cremator.
IE&E and Crawford Cremators have Castable Cremation Chamber Ceilings.
Castable Cremation Chamber Ceilings can also be found in the later model B&L
Cremators. This ceiling is made of a refractory material that is poured like
concrete, and hardens to a consistency of concrete. To replace this type
of ceiling, the top of the Cremator must be removed, along with the burners,
mechanical, and electrical components on top of the Cremator.
Jones Incinerators, ALL, American, and some models of the B&L Cremator
have Insulating Firebrick Ceilings. These are composed of either arch shaped
or wedge shaped Firebricks, which are installed in such a manner as to produce
an arch shaped ceiling. This type of ceiling can be removed and replaced from
within the Cremator; eliminating the need to remove components from the
top of the cremator. This saves time when replacing the ceiling.
Earlier models of B&L N-20AA and B&L Phoenix Cremators have Ceramic
Fiber Module Ceilings. These ceilings consist of modules of ceramic fibre.
Each module contains hardware which is utilized to secure the module to
to the ceiling. A special stud gun is utilized to secure the module and weld
it's associated hardware to a metal sheet on the ceiling. This type of Cremation
Chamber Ceiling can be completely removed and replaced from within the
Cremator, eliminating the need to remove components from the top of the
Cremator. this saves time when replacing the ceiling.
Individual modules can be replaced as they wear out, eliminating , in some
cases, the need to replace the entire ceiling. A time will inevitably come
when the entire Ceramic Module Ceiling will need to be replaced. This usually
occurs after some years of use, by way of normal wear and deterioration of the
Ceramic fibre modules in ceilings in earlier model B&L Systems Cremators
tend to shrink over time. If you find modules that have gaps betweem each
other in which you can slip your finger, the gaps should be packed with strips
of ceramic blanket. Hi-Temp Refractory can provide you with the necessary
materials to perform this task, as well as instruct you on how to properly carry
out this operation. Or, we can send a qualified technician to install the
material for you. Contact us for more information.
CLICK HERE TO LEARN ABOUT POTENTIAL CREMATION CHAMBER CEILING PROBLEMS
2. Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor
The Cremation Hearth Floor in a Cremator is made of a refractory material
that is poured like concrete, and hardens to a consistency of concrete.
Its average temperature rating is 3000 Degrees F.
The Cremation Hearth Floor in the ALL cremator consists of castable tiles.
When we replace this type of floor, we pour a solid, smooth castable floor.
This type of floor makes sweeping out the cremains a much easier task.
There are basically two types of Cremation Hearth Floors; the hot floor design
and the warm floor design. The warm floor design is found in the All, American,
early IE&E Power Paks, and early Crawford Cremators.
The early IE&E and early Crawford Cremation Chamber Floors have a steel plate
under the floor. The ALL and American Cremators have a metal pan, containing
insulating firebricks, under the floor.
The hot floor design is found in B&L, later model IE&E, and later model
Crawford Cremators. This type of Cremation Chamber Floor is suspended
between two side walls. It is supported only by the two side walls, a front
wall, a center wall, and a lentil in the back. B&L models also have lentils
supporting the floor in the center of the Cremator, also.
The hot floor design allows the Cremator to operate more efficiently, by
allowing heat in the lower afterchamber to conduct through the bottom of the
floor into the Cremation Chamber. After the retort is initially heated up, this
heat conductivity from under the floor allows the additional cremations to
start burning sooner.
Jones Cremators have a Cremation Hearth Floor, which sit directly on top of a
hard Firebrick arch. This has a similar effect as a hot floor design.
In Animal and Pet Cremators and Incinerators, calcium buildup can occur
on the surface of the Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor. This substance can
be cleaned off the floor surface occasionally. If this buildup is allowed to
go unchecked, the accumalation of calcium can become so severe that it becomes
higher than the floor level, causing grease to run out the front door of the
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On Cremation Chamber Floors where the height of
the floor is not critical, and no hole is completely
through the floor; a floor cap, consisting of a one
and one half to three inch layer of refractory
castable; can be installed over the existing floor.
This can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of a
complete floor replacement.
3. Cremation Chamber Side Walls
The Cremation Chamber Side Walls in every make and model of Cremator consists
of Firebricks. Some brands of Cremators; such as B&L and Jones; install hard
Firebricks in the entire Cremation Chamber Side Wall. While other brands; such as
IE&E, ALL, Crawford, and American; install hard Firebricks in the lower portion of the
wall, and Insulating Firebricks in the upper portion of the wall.
Refractory insulating materials are installed behind the Cremation Chamber Side
Walls in every brand of Cremation retort. This helps to keep an excessive amount
of heat form radiating to the exterior of the Cremator.
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4. Afterburner Chamber Walls
The Afterburner Chamber Walls are located in the rear of the B&L, ALL,
American, later model IE&E, and later model Crawford Cremators. The Afterburner
Chamber Walls are located on the back section of the Cremation Chamber Side
Wall on earlier versions of IE&E and Crawford Cremators. They can be identified by
the fact that they always have an opening; known as the gas pass window; in this
Jones Cremators have a series of gas pass openings, along the bottom of the left
and right Cremation Chamber Side Walls.
Gases from the Main Cremation Chamber go through the gas pass, where an
afterburner incinerates the pollutants, in order to produce clean emissions out
of the stack.
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5. Lower After Chamber Walls
The Lower After Chamber Walls are located below the Cremation Hearth Floor
and under the after burner chamber in the B&L, IE&E, Crawford, And Jones
In older models of IE&E and Crawford Cremators, the Lower After Chamber
Walls are located beneath a Lower Chamber Ceiling. This ceiling is made of a
Refractory castable, and is located beneath a steel plate, on which the Cremation
Chamber Hearth floor sits.
All Lower After Chamber Walls in all makes and models of Cremators are made of
high duty Firebricks. In the ALL and American Brands of retorts, there are no
lower after chamber walls. The gases simply go into the gas pass window, under a
lentil, then directly out the stack. In Jones Cremators, the lower after chamber walls
are directly beneath the Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor.
The lower after chamber needs to be cleaned out now and again. Access panels
are located at the rear of the B&L, IE&E and Crawford Cremators. The panel is
removed, followed by some layers of insulation, followed by Firebrick which is
stacked in the access opening. After you remove these items, you can clean out the
lower chambers. At this time, you can also inspect the lower after chambers, in
order to get some idea of what condition it is in.
These Firebricks tend to deteriorate over time, especially in the area nearest the
after burner. So it is always a good idea to inspect them while performing a clean out
underneath. When looking into the clean out door opening on a B&L, IE&E, or
Crawford Cremator, keep in mind that the wall on the inside area of the opening
is the center wall. The center wall helps support the Cremation Hearth Floor. It also
blocks the smoke by providing an extended path for the gases to follow, on their way
to the stack. This allows more time for the pollutants to burn off the gases. A failure
of this wall can cause the Cremator to extract excessive smoke from the stack, as
well as possibly causing a collapse of the Cremation Hearth Floor.
Earlier models of IE&E and Crawford Cremators have a lower after chamber ceiling
made of castable. This ceiling is below the Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor,
seperated from the Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor by an airspace of 3 to 4.
The Cremation Chamber Hearth Floors in these particular Cremators are supported
by a metal plate, which rests on top of metal I beams. Inspect this ceiling carefully,
making certain there are no holes in it. A breach in this ceiling, in conjunction
with continued operation of the Cremator, could cause extensive damage to the
metal infrastructure beneath the Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor.
In early models of IE&E and Crawford Cremators, check to see if the baffolds on
the after burner side are still intact. If not, then they should be replaced, in that they
play a major role in slowing down the gases, so the pollutants can be burned off
the gases more thoroughly and efficiently.
After the clean out and inspection is completed, the bricks, insulation and access
panel must be put back in the access door opening. Sometimes, the bricks that
you remove from the access door opening may be too worn and brittle to reinstall.
Because of this fact, you should always have some replacement Firebrick on hand.
Hi-Temp Refractory can supply you with the replacement Firebricks you need.
Contact us for more information.
CLICK HERE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT POTENTIAL LOWER AFTER CHAMBER WALL PROBLEMS
6. Stack Linings
The Stack Linings in B&L and Crawford Cremators consist of Insulating Castable.
Thus far, we have never seen a B&L or Crawford Stack Lining in need of repair or
replacement. The ALL and American Cremator Stack Lining consists of 4 1/2
thick Insulating Firebrick. IE&E Stacks are made of stainless steel, and have no
Refractory Lining. THe IE&E Stack has a 2 layer of insulation wrapped around
CLICK HERE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT POTENTIAL STACK LINING PROBLEMS
IE&E, ALL, Crawford, and later model B&L Cremators have venturis attached to the
base of the stack, between the stack and the cremator. The venturis are designed
to help increase the draft to the Cremator stack. The IE&E version tends to rust
after prolonged use, and it is recomended the venturi be replaced when the rusting
begins to cause the IE&E venturi to start deteriorating. We have as yet to see a B&L
or Crawford venturi in need of replacement.
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8. Cremation Chamber Doors
The ALL, IE&E, Jones, and American Cremation Chamber Doors have a 4 1/2
thick Insulating Firebrick Lining. The B&L Cremation Chamber Door has a 6 thick
Ceramic Fibre Module lining. The Crawford Cremation Chamber Door is lined
with 4 1/2 of castable Refractory. ALL, IE&E, Jones, American, and B&L Cremation
Chamber door linings can usually be replaced from within the Cremator; while
the Crawford Cremation Chamber Door lining would have to be replaced by
removing the door.
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9. Side Cleanout Door On B&L Cremator
B&L Cremators have an exclusive side cleanout door. This door is lined with
Insulating Firebrick. It also has a gasket which is utilized to seal the door when
it is closed. This gasket tends to recieve a substantial amount of wear after
prolonged use. When the gasket becomes frayed and tattered, it is recommended
that it be replaced.
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10. Characteristics Unique To Jones Cremators
The Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor in a Jones Cremator, sits on top of a hard
Firebrick arch. Directly below this arch, there is another arch consisting of
hard Firebrick. It is a checkerboard arch. This arch resembles a checkerboard, due
to the fact htat it has holes all along it in a checkerboard pattern. Gases pass through
these holes on the way to the stack. This checkerboard arch acts as a baffold,
slowing down the gases movement, so that the pollutants can be more thoroughly
burned off the gases. If a Jones Cremator produces excessive smoke out of the
stack, it could indicate that this arch has either fallen out, or is severely damaged,
and is in need of replacement. This arch can be reached via a cleanout door at
the front of the retort.
There are Firebrick tiles along the sides of a Jones Cremator Cremation Chamber
Hearth Floor. The purpose of these tile is to prevent cremains from going into the
gas pass holes along the sides of the Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor. It is
imperative that these be repaired when they start deteriorating.
CLICK HERE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT POTENTIAL PROBLEMS UNIQUE TO JONES CREMATORS
11. Hot Spots
Visible hot spots on the exterior metal of any cremator is a definite indication of
a Refractory problem. Periodically inspect the entire exterior of the Cremator while
it is operating. Check for any areas on the metal surface which is either darkened,
glowing red, or is excessively hot to the touch, in combination with being either
darkened, discolored, or glowing red.
It is reccomended that if such a situation is present, that the situation be
addressed immediately, without hesitation. The purpose of Refractory Linings
in a Cremator is to retain the heat and flames within the confines of the Cremator,
and to protect the steel infrastructure of the cremator from heat damage. A hot
spot is a sure sign that the Refractory Linings purpose is being severely and
12. Cleanout Of Lower Afterchamber
Periodically, the lower afterchamber should be cleared of obstructions which
can accumalate over time, obstructing the flow of gases through the cremator.
An access panel is located at the rear of the Cremator under the stack on B&L,
Crawford, and early model IE&E Cremators. On later model IE&E Cremators,
there are two access panels on the rear of the Cremator, one on the stack side, and
one on the afterburner side. On Jones Cremators, accessiblity to the afterchambers
is available via the lower front area of the retort.
To perform the cleanout procedure, remove the access panel, the layers of
insulation, and the Firebricks that fill the opening. Clean all accumalated soot
and obstructions from the chambers, perform a general inspection of the condition
of the Refractory, then replace the Firebricks, layers of insulation, and Access panel.
Sometimes, the Firebricks and insulation may be deteriorated to the point that
they may have to be replaced with new materials. It is a good idea to always keep
replacement Firebricks and insulation on hand in case replacement becomes
necessary. Contact us at Hi-Temp Refractory, so that we can provide you with
the materials you need for this purpose.
13. Afterburner Chamber Ceiling
Afterburner chamber ceilings in earlier model B&L Cremators consist of
Ceramic Fibre Modules. Over time, these Modules may deteriorate and fall out.
When this occurs, the fallen Module must be immediately replaced.
The afterburner chamber ceiling in IE&E, Crawford, and later model B&L
Cremators consist of Refractory castable, which has the consistency of
hard concrete. Over time this type ceiling can have pieces of castable fall out,
or develop extreme cracks. When this starts occuring, the problem should be
addressed before further damage is inflicted on the cremator.
CLICK HERE TO LEARN ABOUT POTENTIAL AFTERBURNER CHAMBER CEILING PROBLEMS
The floor cap consists of the same kind of Refractory Castable that is installed in
the original Cremation Hearth Floor. Capping the floor can greatly further the life of
the floor. Once a floor is capped, it is as smooth as a brand new floor.
Hi-Temp Refractory can supply you with the material necessary if you would like
to install the floor cap yourself, or we can provide a qualified technician to perform
the installation for you. Contact us for more information.
CLICK HERE TO LEARN ABOUT POTENTIAL CREMATION CHAMBER HEARTH FLOOR PROBLEMS
A. Potential Problems With Cremation Chamber Ceilings Click here to go back
1. Ceramic fibre Modules dropping out of early model B&L Cremator Ceilings.
2. Pieces of castable falling out of IE&E, Crawford, & later model B&L Cremator
3. Severe melting of castable in IE&E, Crawford, & later model B&L Cremator
4. Pieces of Firebrick falling out of ALL, American, Jones, and certain models
5. Severe meltdown of Firebricks in ALL, American, Jones, and certain models
of B&L Cremators.
6. Pieces of ceiling falling out at door opening exposing steel . Smoke coming
out of the top area of the door when it is closed could be an indicator of
7. Ceramic Fibre modules falling out at door opening exposing steel on B&L
8. Hot spot on top of Cremator over ceiling.
B. Potential Problems with Cremation Chamber Hearth Floor Click here to go back
1. In Animal and Pet Cremators and Incinerators, watch for severe calcium
deposit buildup on hearth floor surface. Clean this buildup off occasionally
to prevent grease from flowing out the front door of the Cremator.
2. Watch for excessive wear and pitting of the surface of the Cremation
Chamber Hearth floor surface. If there are no holes in the floor, and the
maximum allowable floor height is not restrictive, a cap can be installed
on top of existing floor. This will make the floor surface as smooth as a
new floor. Contact us at Hi-Temp Refractory for further information.
3. Watch for holes in the hearth floor. This will indicate that the cremation
hearth floor is in need of replacement .
4. Cremation Chamber Hearth Floors tend to begin wearing out and
developing pits directly under the main cremation chamber burner.
When this begins to create problems with the sweeping out of cremains,
some may advise you to simply patch the affected area. We recommend
capping the entire surface of the floor when this occurs, due to the fact
that a small patch will not last very long. The constant sweeping of cremains
over a small patch will ultimately knock the patch lose, and you will
have the same problem as before, all over again. Where as capping
the entire floor surface will make the surface smooth, just like a new floor,
and it will last for a good while.
C. Potential Problems With Cremation Chamber Side Walls Click here to go back
1. Pieces of Firebrick falling out of wall.
2. Pieces of Firebrick breaking off the wall at the door frame, exposing
the steel. Steel exposure at the door frame can cause the steel to warp.
This creates problems opening and closing the door, as well as sealing
3. Severe meltdown of Firebricks in the walls.
4. Holes in the walls.
5. Hot Spots developing on the sides of the exterior of the Cremator.
D. Potential Problems With Afterburner Chamber Walls Click here to go back
1. Severe meltdown of Firebricks.
2. Bricks falling out of gas pass knee wall. This could indicate a failure
of the support beam under the knee wall, especially if the bricks are
falling form the bottom portion of the knee wall.
3. Severe deterioration of the Firebrick within the gas pass throat area
where the afterburner is. This area recieves a significant amount of
direct heat and the firebricks here tend to deteriorate more rapidly.
The rear wall of the gas pass throat area has been known to melt
away toward the bottom of the wall. This area should be inspected
4. Hot spots on the rear sides and back of the exterior of the cremator.
E. Potential Problems With The Lower After Chamber Walls Click here to go back
1. Note: you must remove access panel, insulation, and Firebrick in
opening before you can inspect the lower after chamber walls.
2. Pieces of bricks falling out of walls.
3. Make certain the center wall is intact.
4. Make sure there is no extreme meltdown of bricks. The after burner
side walls are especially susceptible to this, so be sure to check that
area very carefully.
5. Pieces falling out or severe meltdown of ceiling above the lower after
chamber walls. In B&L, later model Crawford & later model IE&E
Cremators, this could be an indication of deterioration of Cremation
chamber Hearth floor on its bottom side. In earlier model Crawford & IE&E
Cremators, this could be an indication of deterioration of lower after
chamber ceiling. This ceiling protects the steel infrastructure beneath
the Cremation hearth floor from direct heat and flame exposure.
6. Hot spots along lower side, lower rear, and lower front portions of
exterior of Cremator.
F. Potential Problems With Stack Lining Of ALL Cremator Click here to go back
1. Remove thermocouple from stack, look inside hole and make certain
there is at least 3of Firebrick thickness remaining. If there is less than
3 thickness remaining, replacement of Insulating Firebricks in
stack should be considered.
2. Hot spots on exterior of stack.
G. Potential Problems With Cremation Chamber Doors Click here to go back
1. Always keep watch of the exterior metal of the door, making certain
no hot spots are developing. A hot spot is a burnt area of the metal,
where the protection from the heat has failed, resulting in the heat
slowly burning a hole in the metal from the inside out. the hot spot
will be glowing red when cremator is operating, and you will not be
able to touch it. A hot spot on the Cremation chamber door is a direct
indication that the Refractory lining has failed. It is recommended
that this problem be addressed immediately.
H. Potential Problems With B&L Side Cleanout Door Click here to go back
1. If smoke comes out of door when it is completely closed, the seal
is failing and the gasket on the door should be replaced. Hi-Temp
Refractory can supply you with the items you need to replace the
gasket. Contact us for more information.
2. Pieces of castable falling out of side door jamb on the Cremator.
3. Bricks deteriorating or falling out of the side door.
I. Potential Problems Unique To Jones Cremators Click here to go back
1. Inspect checkerboard arch in after chamber, making certain the
Firebricks in this arch are not falling out or deteriorating. this
arch is accessible via a front access plate at lower front of the Cremator.
To access this, you must remove access plate, insulation, and Firebricks
enclosing the opening. these items must be replaced when done
2. Deterioration of tiles along the sides of the Cremation Chamber
Hearth Floor. These tile keep cremains from getting into the after
chamber, so it is imperative they be repaired or replaced when
they begin deteriorating.
J. Potential Problem With Afterburner Chamber Ceiling Click here to go back
1. In earlier model B&L Cremators, make certain Ceramic Fibre
Modules are in place, and have not dropped down. If a module has
dropped out, it is very important that the problem be taken care of
2. In earlier model B&L Cremators, the ceramic fibre modules will tend
to shrink over time. If you detect excessive shrinkage, for example,
if you can slip your finger in crack between modules, then the gap
should be filled with strips of ceramic fibre blanket. Hi-Temp Refractory
can provide you with this blanket, as well as instruct you on its proper
installation. Or, we can send a qualified technician to install this
for you. Contact us for more information.
3. Pieces of castable falling out of IE&E, Crawford, & later models of
4. Severe meltdown of castable in IE&E, Crawford, and later model B&L
5. Hot spots on top of Cremator in afterburner area, as well as upper
side and back of Cremator in this same vicinity.
K. Potential Problem With Venturis Click here to go back
1. Check for severe rusting and holes in the metal, especially on IE&E
venturis, being that IE&E venturis are constructed entirely of metal,
and have no Refractory lining.
2. Check for hot spots on exterior of venturi.